Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Citizenship of Nation, State and/or Nation-State : A Hindu dharmik perspective

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Background article to read to understand the "bhumika" of this one - Critique on Savarkar's ideas - Hindutva in proper perspective

A quote from linked article for the convenience of gentle readers which forms the back-bone of this article. 

The original definition from Savarkar's "Hindutva", for the consideration of reader, goes like this - 
आसिन्धु सिन्धु पर्यन्ता यस्य भारत भूमिकाः
पितृभूः पुण्यभुः च एव, स वै हिन्दुरीति स्मृतः 
One who considers this land from Indus to southern ocean (poetic way of saying entire Indian subcontinent, no need to take it literally) as "India" and regards this country as  his "pitRu bhumi" (land of forefathers) and Punya-bhumi (difficult to translate this one), he is "Hindu" 

India is my Pitrubhumi (Land of Pitaras - forefathers). All the places, rivers, mountains which I consider valuable and am ideologically and emotionally attached to, are in Indian subcontinent. Hence, India is my Pitrubhumi and Punyabhumi. Julia Roberts, for example, may be a Vaishnavaite, but her pitrubhumi is somewhere else. She is dharmik, but not Hindu. Hindu and Hindutva ARE geographically confined terms. These terms "Hindu" and "Hindutva" are for denoting dharmarthik (socio-politico-economic) aspirations of ethnic Indic people. Hindutva is a subset of Dharma. Dharma is for entire humanity.

Now that the bhumika (position) is stated, I will give a context of discussion that was happening which resulted in main-body of this article. The discussion, happened on Bhaarat-rakshak forum where I frequent, centered around why "Hindutva" and "Hindu-nationalism" has such a bad PR in market of ideas in current space and time? The very identity of "Hindu" came into existence in context to abrahmic monotheistic invasions. Before that there was no such identity as "hindu" - there were adhyatma-maarga based identities like shaiva, vaishnava bauddha, jaina etc. and there were jaati and varNa based based identities. 

The very term "Hindu" came into being as a rallying umbrella term to organize and strike back at Islamism (and Christianity). So it is natural that opposition to muslims (in fact it is opposition to Islamism which on street level manifests as opposition to local muslim person) is important (and bulk) portion of what constitutes as "hindutva nationalism" or whatever other names attributed to this socio-politico-economic movement. Hindutva is India's adaptive response to nation-state based polity. If and when current global polity based on Westphalian nation-state model will collapse, so will the dharmarthik ideology of Hindutva and even the identity of "Hindu" will fade away.

Why is it spoken in pejorative sense? Simple - it is a response which other contemporary ancient and medieval non-abrahmic civilizations have failed to develop against nation-state which preserves the core within; thereby preventing complete digestion of everything that Indian civilization stands for and means. Its a hindrance for those forces which would like to digest us. Hence hatred.

This position when state was responded by following argument.

XXX says that the terms ("Hindu" and "nationalism") are not owned by Indians and the owners are doing what they want. You are saying that the term Hindu was coined specifically as a reaction to invaders. In XXX's viewpoint "hindu nationalist" is pejorative because others choose to describe in in whatever way they like. But according to you, Hindu nationalism is anti-Muslim/Christian and this corresponds, for example, to Wendy Doniger's viewpoint.  
The implication from both meanings is that you cannot be a Hindu and a nationalist without admitting to be anti-minority. For example we dissect statements from Muslims and ask if they say "I am an Indian first" or whether they say "I am a Muslim first". A similar choice is being offered to the Hindu if he says that he is Hindu first, then he is anti-minority. He has to say "I am Indian" first unless he does not object to the anti-minority tag. 
In other words, for Indians, nationalism has to come in different flavors for different people. But the choice of being Hindu and nationalist is removed for all Hindus unless they admit to being anti-minority.
Following is my response to this argument which will form the main body of this article. It happened few weeks ago. I waited to think it through before considering this opinion fit to be published.

First, when we say "nationalism" or "nationalist" or "Hindu-nationalist" etc, we have to ask one basic question - what is this "nation" thingy? Does nation here means Republic of India - a Westphalian nation-state which emerged on world-stage on 26th January 1950? Or do we mean raashtra of Bhaarata which Vedas proclaim पृथिव्यै समुद्र पर्यन्तया एकराळिति (this land until the oceans is one raashtra). 

They very construct of Westphalian nation-state is very illogical according to me. It was designed to stop wars from ravaging Europe, but in fact, Westphalian nation-state has ravaged Europe much more. In fact, lasting peace of in Europe was achieved when post WW2, when the seeds of European Union were sowed and after conclusion of Yugoslavian war and fall of Berlin war, we now have a peace in Europe which seems to be organic, sustainable and lasting. Last 70 years have been most peaceful for Europe and this they achieved by moving away from Westphalian nation-state's rigidity.

However while they did this post WW2, they already had shaped the world in their image. Hence creation of nation-states all over the world. 

Now this construct is diametrically opposed to very nature of human societies to naturally expand and shrink in geography. What is a citizen? All German citizens are equal, as per German constitution - irrespective of his race, religion, creed and background. In exchange, all German citizens are expected to owe allegiance to Germany (which actually refers to a book with words "German constitution" written on its cover). While this is technical expectation from a German citizen, the expectations of ethnic Germans are however very human and basal - all German citizens should consider themselves German. But an Arab immigrant or a Pakistani or for that matter an Indian origin person may not feel that way. He has German passport alright, but he openly says he does not feel German and will never be a German. Thus the very construct is fundamentally flawed which will soon reveal itself in ugly manner in peaceful Europe. 

More or less, this is the fate of all other so called "nation-states". The problem of "citizen" is going to play havoc in today's globalized world.

In dharmik civilization, raashtra is separate from raajya which is also separate from desha.  Dharma is not limited to geography (desha) of Indian subcontinent. Dharma is universal. Raashtra in our narrative is linked with geography (desha) - hence the Rigvedik Richa that I quoted above. Our narrative acknowledges existence of other raashtras (varshas) on earth. The varsha or raashtra which we live in is called "bhaarat-varsha". 

Raajya or state, on the other hand, is not linked with raashtra, nor necessarily with desha. The raajyas of Saatavaahana-VaakaaTaka-chaalukya-raashTrakuTa-Kakatiya-hoysaala-yaadava-vijaynagar-marathas-maharashtra/AP/Karnataka - all have existed on same "desha", belong to same "raashtra" (which ran as per dictats of dharma), but were/are vastly different "Raajyas". That is they existed in same space and belonged to same raashtra but at different times. On the other hand, raajyas of Magadha and Chola were located in different space within same desha (i.e. Indian subcontinent) and same raashtra (Bhaarat-varsha) at same and different times. Thus we see raajya not being rigidly interlinked with geography and identity in same and different space and times.

Thus raashtra-raajya-desha segregation and interlink in dharmik (in post islamic times, Hindu) polity is understood and inherent. This is not the case in Abrahmic polity and its successor Westphalian nation-state based polity. 

In Abrahmic polity, deen and daulat (religion and state) cannot be separated. In post renaissance Westphalian model, while they forcefully separated state from religion to an extent, but in the process they linked it to geography and identity (vaguely - rashtra/nation). To make things complicated, they froze the borders. Thus giving rise to modern "nation-states".

This is so much different from our way of organizing the polity. But we were overcome post 1805 and our attempt to revert back to pre-1805 polity in 1857 was crushed by English. Thus we were forced to swallow this pill of reformatting our identity (raashtra), our way of organizing polity (raajya) and our desha (geography in form of partition) in British occupation. This was tried all over the world. 

Islamic world has Quran which preserves its "deen-daulat" model based on Sharia and since it is word of God (same god as European Christians worship), it was safeguarded. Look what happened to non-abrahmic cultures and their world-view. Look at China - they have given it up (or so it seems, I hope they too have preserved the core in some form) that. 

We too had to adapt to this. The era of nation-state had arrived and no matter how conflicting it was to our understanding, we had to find a way to preserve our core while preventing further loss of raashtra-raaajya-desha and dharma. This is where the theory of Hindutva arose. 

It has its origins in Hindavi-swarajya of MaraThas (which was an Indian or Indic socio-political response to Islamism) which in turn had origins in Vijaynagara movement and early Rajputs. Hindavi swaraya of Marathas (for sake of simplicity, we must understand that all non-islamic, non-christian political entities which existed in India in past 1000 years are "hindavi swarajya") was a socio-politico-economic rebellion of those native brown skinned Indians against Islamism and its socio-politico-economic dominance on people and geography of India. In other words, it was an Indian dharmaarthik response to Islamism.

Now as far as the word "Hindu" goes, as I said earlier, it was a collective umbrella term for all, Indian origin people following Indian any of adhyatmik paths. So it has an ethnic undertones to it. As I said previously, Julia Roberts is a VaishNava woman, but she is not a Hindu. On the other hand, APJ Abdul Kalam is a Hindu following Islam as his personal adhyatma maarga. 

The term 'Hindu' has always been a socio-judicio-politico-economic (dharmaarthik) term. British fused it with alien concept of "religion" and gave this term "religions" connotations thus giving rise to the nebulous "Hinduism". I do not even understand what religion means anymore - thankfully. I have managed to detoxify myself to some extent. 

So, in summary, we have terms Hindu and Hindutva. Hindu is an identity based term (raashtra) and Hindutva is dharmaarthik theory which deals with Hindu-polity in era of nation-state. 

Imagine for a while a time in distant future when this very edifice of nation-state has collapsed. Hindutva will collapse with it. It is a survival adaptation of Hindus. After few years/decades of collapse of Hindutva, when the very concept of "religion" collapses (or becomes irrelevant or non-interfering), the term "hindu" too will drop off. 

This has preserved our way of life in past 1000 years. Without this, in my opinion, dharma would have been relegated to museums like Zoroastrians and Egyptians. And since this adaptation, although uncomfortable, is a protective shield it is hated by those who wish to homogenize the world. 

Hence all this conflict. 

Shubham astu!!!

Friday, June 06, 2014

Advice by Ramdas Swamy to Sambhaji Maharj - Excellent lesson in strategy

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This is letter written by Samartha Ramdas Swami to Shivaji's son Sambhaji after he succeeded his great father. This is fantastic strategic message given to Indics (Sambhaji is Nimitta) by the sage at the wake of Aurangzeb's invasion on Deccan. I have inserted few other quote of Samartha Ramdas in this advise which are coherent and used by swami in similar context, but elsewhere. Worth emulating by everyone - especially our new Govt and the supporters of Modi should understand this too.

अखंड सावधान असावे| दुश्चित कदापि नसावे| 
तजविजा करीत बसावे| एकांत स्थळी||१||

One should always be cautious.. Never be malevolent... Always keep thinking and preparing.. alone..

काही उग्रस्थिती सांडावी| काही सौम्यता धरावी| 
चिंता लागावी परावी अंतर्यामी||२||

One should shed anger and impatience and imbibe patience.. Or else, concern starts nibbing the inner mind..

मागील अपराध क्षमावे| कारभारी हाती धरावे| 
सुखी करुनि सोडावे| कामाकडे||३||

Forgive few misgivings of old employees, but take the control in your hands... Make them attentive and satisfied towards their work

पाटवणी तुंब निघेना| तरी मग पाणी चालेना| 
तैसे सज्जनांच्या मना| कळले पाहिजे||४||

Once a mental block develops, the water (thoughts) stop flowing freely in minds of a Sajjana.. One should understand this..

जनांचा प्रवाहों चालिला| म्हणजे कार्यभाग आटोपला| 
जन ठायी ठायी तुंबला| म्हाणिजे खोटे||५||

One works as per all the wishes of subjects, his regime is shortlived. same happens to one who objects to all the wishes of subjects. 

श्रेष्ठी जे जे मेळविले| त्यासाठी भांडत बैसले| 
मग जाणावे फावले| गनिमासी||६||

When various factions in court/society start fighting for credit of glory and property achieved in past together, know that enemy is utmost happy..

ऐसे सहसा करू नये| दोघे भांडता तिसय्रासी जाए| 
धीर धरून महत्कार्य| समजून करावे||७|| 

Thus, be a careful interlocutor and bring in peace, or else, the third party benefits in the quarrel of first two.

आधीच पडला धस्ती| म्हणजे कार्यभाग होय नास्ती|
याकारणे समस्ती| बुद्धि शोधावी||८||

If subordinates and people start fearing you, understand that you have lost.. Think quickly of measures that would restore trust and eliminate fear..

राजी राखता जग| मग कार्यभागाची लगबग| 
ऐसे जाणोनिया सांग | समाधान राखावे||९||

सकळ लोक एक करावे| गनीम निपटुन काढावे| 
ऐसे करीता कीर्ति धावे| दिगंतरी||१०||

Unite all the people and eliminate the enemy.. Then the fame and glory reaches beyond all directions..

आधी गाजवावे तडाके| मग भूमंडळ धाके| 
ऐसे न होता धक्के| राज्यास होती||११||

Enemy will fear only when you do something to him.. Or else, your empire will start collapsing..

समय प्रसंग वोळखावा| राग निपटुन काढावा| 
आला तरी कळो नेदावा| जनांमध्ये||१२||

Understand the situation you are in and control your anger.. even if you are angry, don't let others know..

राज्यामध्ये सकळ लोक| सलगी देवून करावे सेवक| 
लोकांचे मनामध्ये धाक| उपजोचि नये||१३||

Be friendly towards all subjects, friends and servants.. Make sure that fear does not arise in their minds (since it breeds mistrust)

बहुत लोक मेळवावे| एक विचारे भरावे| 
कष्टे करोनी घसरावे| म्लेंच्छांवरी||१४||

Gather many such men.. Motivate them with the idea (of Hindavi swaraj)... prepare and fall on the Mlenchhas (Mughals) with vengeance..

मतामतांचा गलबला। कोणी पुसेना कोणाला। 
जो जे मतीं सांपडलां। तयास तेंचि थोर।

Millions of opinions flying around makes it difficult because each starts believing in the superiority of his opinion (which makes uniting men for one cause difficult).. 

मुलाचे चालीने चालावे। मुलांचे मनोगत बोलावे। 
तैसे जनास शिकवावे। हळूहळू।

One should teach them (masses) like we teach children in their language (referring to patience of the teacher)...

महंतें महंत करावे। युक्तिबुद्धीने भरावे। 
जाणते करून विखरावे। नाना देसी।

One should teach them the cause and associated philosophies.. Once wise, one should spread them across entire country..

सामर्थ्य आहे चळवळीचे । जो जो करील तयाचे। 
परंतु तेथे भगवंताचे । अधिष्ठान पाहिजे।।

The true strength lies only in mass-movement.. But there should be backing of Ishwara to such movement..

आहे तितुके जतन करावे| पुढे आणिक मेळवावे| 
महाराष्ट्र राज्य करावे |जिकडे तिकडे||१५||

Preserve what you already possess.. Get more.. Make Maratha Rajya (Hindavi swaraj) everywhere..

लोकी हिम्मत धरावी| शर्तीची तरवार करावी| 
चढ़ती वाढती पदवी| पावाल येणे||१६||

give people courage.. lead them from front.. promote and felicitate deserving achievers at every step..

देव मस्तकी धरावा। अवघा हलकल्लोळ करावा। 
मुलुख बुडवावा की बडवावा। स्वराज्या कारणे।

Bow to Raama and create a storm all over.. beat and drown the enemy provinces and assimilate them...

देशद्रोही तितुके कुत्ते । मारोन घालावे परते। 
देवदास पावती फत्ते। यदर्थी संशयो नाही।

The traitors are the real rabid dogs and should be slain similarly.. Any servant of sri Raama who does this, wins for sure..

धर्मासाठी झुंजावे|झुंझोनी अवघ्यासी मारावे || 
मारिता मारिता घ्यावे|राज्य आपुले

Prepare to fight for Dharma... While fighting, kill as many as you can.. Keep on working towards finishing the task (of establishing dharma and hindavi swaraj), even while fighting and killing...

शिवरायास आठवावे| जीवित्व तृणवत मानावे| 
इहलोकी परलोकी राहावे| कीर्तीरुपे||१७||

Remember your father, Shivaji.. Compare yourselves with him and do not think of yourselves too highly .. Learn from him how to live forever...

शिवरायांचे आठवावे स्वरूप| शिवरायांचा आठवावा साक्षेप| 
शिवरायांचा आठवावा प्रताप| भुमंडळी||१८||

Remember how he looked... Remember what he achieved.. Remember how he thought.. while on this earth..

शिवरायांचे कैसे चालणे| शिवरायांचे कैसे बोलणे| 
शिवरायांची सलगी देणे| कैसे असे||१९||

Remember how he walked.. Remember how he talked.. Remember how he loved his people...

सकळ सुखांचा त्याग| करुनी साधिजे तो योग| 
राज्यसाधनाची लगबग| ऐसी असे||२०||

Renunciating all pleasures, he achieved the Raaja-Yoga.. Study how he did it..

त्याहुनी करावे विशेष| तरीच म्हणावे पुरूष| 
या उपरी आता विशेष| काय लिहावे||२१

If you manage to achieve something like this, only then shall I consider you a man.. What more to write now?

समर्थाचिया सेवका वक्र पाहे। असा सर्व भूमंडळी कोण आहे।
जयाची लीला वर्णिती लोक तीन्ही। नुपेक्षी कदा रामदासाभिमानी।।

Know that, there is no one in this world who is strong enough to harm the servant of Sri Raama whose Leelas are sung by all three worlds..

Friday, May 23, 2014

Redefining Indrashakti - Transformation of Ghatotkacha into Dhananjaya

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This is my analysis pertaining to my old "Indra-Shakti" theory. It took me 3-4 years to find utterance for this idea which culminated into Indrashakti-Ghatotkacha theory and now with huge mandate of NDA, it has further developed into Chakravyuha-Dhananjaya theory. 

To rehash the concepts, this is Indrashakti theory in gist - 

No body wants to be in power, in 2014. 2014-2019 is a term which is ticking time-bomb. most probably the leader leading India in this time is going to be Ghatotkacha (or so is the theory). All the bigger sins which UPA has done in past 10 years will be bearing fruits in coming 5 and the incumbent PM is going to have to do the gadhaa-majoori. The PM of India from 2014-19 will have to bear the brunt of screwed up economy, screwed up foreign relations, US-withdrawal from Afghanistan thereby diversion of a horde of Jihadis into India, China's antics were testing the compliance of India which are only going to increase. Basically, its like Three-Pronged Indrashakti of Karna (Economy + Jihad + Chinese aggression) which together is very lethal calamity. The PM of India in this period will suffer the fate of Ghatotkacha who fought bravely but who's ultimate role and utility was to force Karna to launch Indrashakti (one-time usable) and die, thereby saving Arjuna. 

I personally was, if many of you remember, in favor of NaMo too performing a flanking maneuver and allow third-front to occupy throne and sink under this weight and then arrive at the scene as savior. From perspective of longer time-cycle, NaMo indeed peaked much earlier. I did not want NaMo to be the Ghatotkacha.

However in this tactically brilliant maneuvering, they (the Anti-India forces) forgot one crucial thing. They did not expect a massive pan-Indian Hindu consolidation which resulted in near 2/3rds majority for NDA and simple majority for BJP. This verdict has given NaMo unprecedented power in dark-times that are coming. 

He will still have to fight very hard to save himself and India from Indrashakti. But due to this unprecedented verdict, this potential Ghatotkacha is perhaps transformed into Dhananjaya Arjun backed by Yogeshwara Krishna. And this same verdict has perhaps reduced and transformed Indrashakti into an extremely difficult to breach "Chakravyuha". Here the Janta-Janaardana was the real "Krishna" who has shielded NaMo and empowered him to fearlessly enter the Chakravyuha.

The difference between an Indrashakti and a Chakravyuha is that Indrashakti was without any answer - once launched the target was destined to die, be it ANYONE - Hence a scapegoat was required in form of Ghatotkacha. This would have been NaMo as PM with ABV like mandate fractured mandate (BJP: 180-240 seats). The absolute majority for BJP on its own and 340 (+37 of Amma and 19 of BJD) has transformed this foe into an extremely difficult Chakravyuha from Indrashakti. 

And thing about this chakravyuha is that while it is as lethal as Indrashakti to almost everyone, paashupatastra wielding Dhananjaya driven around by Yogeshwara Parthasarathy has a fighting chance of actually emerging victorious.

May NaMo get blessings from all over - he will need them. Our Mother is entering a very difficult phase and this is very very good thing that has happened on the eve of that phase. :)

Shubham astu !!!

Sunday, March 02, 2014

General Observations pertaining to Maharashtrian Brahmins

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Many MH-brahmins who still are grounded - are the most clearheaded and idealistic bunch of individuals. Many times, they are idealistic to the fault. As long as they do not show any political ambitions, they are highly revered in rural MH. Many are into social service and they also form the backbone of RSS cadre in MH (partly, most are OBCs). Leaving the yuppy MH-brahmins of Pune-mumbai aside, they do show great potential if they chose to take up their traditional role of social reform, counselling and entrepreneurship motivated by ideology. They can pursue political career in urbanized part of MH - the towns and cities. But their largest skill should be in their entrepreneurial and social-counselling. 

The vedshalas of Pune are extremely well-funded and yet many traditions are dying due to lack of interested pupils. The Saamaveda and atharvaveda tradition which was thriving in Pune, Nagpur, Nashik, Kolhapur until 80s have not almost disappeared. So has many sub-traditions within rigvedic and yajurvedic schools. Society as a whole has been engineered to measure success by material wealth accumulated - this has enticed many brahmin youth (as most others, why blame them alone, hain ji?) away from ideals which their fathers and grand-fathers lived by. There needs a rejuvenation and dynamism introduced in society. 

Punjab is drug-ridden and truncated thanks to nehrus and indira and rajiv and congis. WB is in deep tamas. The ideological dynamism has to come from MH - but MH populace is fast becoming deracinated. Many non-brahmin sections are now rebelling against brahminical narrative of history (partly on the lines of dravidian faultlines, partly native and rooted rebellion - I welcome the latter). this has begun a churning and rattled the cage of MH-brahmins who were runnig away from reality living off their lives in cocoons. Most of the literary matter which this "upsurge" is churning out is drivel and BS. But this has nonetheless stirred the pot. I thank the orgs like Sambhaji brigade at least for this.  

I have been in touch with preservation of modi-script letters from Maratha period. all this is bringing out hidden history. While I am really enjoying the sections of society challenging the brahminical view which has dominated the historical narrative, I am also observing the backdrops of those who challenge, for not all are rooted - its a very delicate and necessary surgery. One wrong step and MH (and subsequently India) will spiral down along the DMK way and next 25-30 years will be lost. 

Know that Maharashtra is the only ideological fountainhead remaining among Hindus. Brahmin friends can help resuscitate that and make it lively again. I've always told this to my brahmin acquaintances - they owe it to dharma for their complacency in past 7-8 decades. If they can do that, they would have repaid their debt to our maataa and then could claim their right on Moksha.

Strife within Maharashtra's sugar lobby now visible

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This is in continuation of my post about sugar-lobby in western MH - its modus operandi is not visible in full glory now. Some new developments and observations that I have made and I am reporting them in this blogpost. This is a random string of observations, hence they may not appear as coherent as it is in case of other blog-posts by your's truly which are in form of essays and articles. Currently too hard-pressed for writing it in a form of standard essay.

1. Sadashivrao Mandlik from Kolhapur has switched over to Shivsena. Sanjay patil of sangli switched over to BJP. In short, all the candidates that matter who are contesting from these sugar-lobby seats belong to this 96-clan deshastha-maratha elite who are big stake-holders in cooperative-movement. The OBC leader Chhagan Bhujbal has been given a loksabha ticket from nashik (thereby packing him off to delhi in a losing election). MH is cleared for Ajitdada pawar. Pawar Saheb has my respect, in spite of all the differences..If only he had used this infinite cunning for good of dharma. if wishes were horses.

2. Many 96-clan maratha leaders switched over to NDA. Kolhapur may turn saffron (I mean politically.. ideologically it is as saffron as Bajrang dal headquarters, even if ruled by INC/NCP) for the first time around. So will sangli. 

3. Bhujbal may deliberately lose from nashik to remain relevant in MH-politics which far more profitable than national politics.

4. As they say in casinos, in the end, the house always wins.. stay in power - the rulers and opposition should belong to this exact circle. Now drill this down to Vidhan sabha, zila-parishad, panchayat samiti, governing bodies of various cooperative banks, gram-panchayats, managing boards of string of industries owned by people belonging to this circle, heck even the boards of primary schools in interior villages of western MH, contractors, transport-companies, everywhere.

5. This election, NDA will win.. but the candidates winning from this region will be from this exact lobby. next time, they will either switch over OR let those ones win, who have better chance of forming govt. who ever is in power, takes care of rest.. 

6. This lobby was broken by BT in urban MH - that is his greatest legacy. Gopinath Munde shows similar promise and is trying to excel it in rural MH in the heartland of 96-clan elite-sugar cooperative owing marathas (not the mango abdul 96-clanner maratha who is like any other norma bloke, who tills the land, works hard and earns bread). it is a very intricate operation to perform. BJP has to stay in power in delhi for at least 10 years to subvert this deeply entrenched system and convert it. and even if it is converted, it will remain in hands of same ppl.

7. Readers may get impression that I am anti-Maratha. I want to categorically state that this is not the case. Nothing wrong in 96-clan Marathas retaining power. The jati-system appears evil because of lack of opportunities. Give an organic all-round growth and increasing pie makes everyone happy. There is a huge groundswell for Modi in this social-group. They will vote along their traditional voting lines, alright. But Munde and Modi has made serious dents in their perception towards BJP which was considered too "brahminical party". as the MH becomes more and more urbanized. this class will shift towards BJP. 

8. MH-brahmins are in no position to move-back into villages. they are too deracinated for that. Time to create new-brahmins out of OBCs and Dalits. OBCs and dalits were the real supporters of Shivaji Maharaj, apart from Brahmins and kayasthas. Munde represents this streak of rising power. In the said region (the western MH - nashik+pune-nagar-satara-sangli-kolhpur-solapur), the 96-clan Maratha lobby will always remain dominant - it is simply the demography that is in their favor. 

9. Problem has never been marathas. problem has been the closely knit sugar-lobby which is very similar to MH's own lutyen's cocktail circuit. The recent MSCB Shikhar bank controversy (its an apex bank in MH for all the cooperative banks and financial institutions in MH) is indicator of how the INC-NCP dynamics are at play. The MSCB was going bust, when Ajit Pawar through his hardwork saved this bank (no pun intended, he really worked hard to save this bank which funds and controls all the activities of all the cooperative banks of MH which funds the ventures of everyone associated with Sugar-lobby). IN May 2011, CM Prithvibaba dismissed the governing panel of the bank and replaced it with those members who are loyal to INC and hence queen-bee. This was the major jolt for Sharad Pawar. NCP would have digested INC in MH and emerged single party, if this trend had continued. 

10. The bank which was in loss in 2009 (indiscriminate loans sanctioned to ppl associated with sugar lobby to win 2009 elections - both state and center) was on the course of scoring profit in may'2011 when INC struck it down on grounds of suspicious activity. In august'2013, the bank recorded profit, making everyone associated with the cooperative network happy. The credit went to INC for making reforms, when what he actually did was continuing Ajit Pawar's policies through the new INC-loyal governing council. 

11. This has caused severe internal strifes within this sugar lobby and many of whom have switched over to NDA. The Madha constituency for example has become a civil-war turf for mohite-patil brothers when Pawar gave ticked to vijay simha mohite-patil, his brother switched over to a party named jansewa samiti. 

12. This gives a much coveted opening to NDA in western MH. the NT (nomadic tribes) (dhangar - shepherd/hatkar - caste of the holkars) leader mahadeo jankar (of rashtriya samaj paksha - constituent of NDA) has great chance of winning in Madha. problem is, there is fight even in the upcoming OBC-NT factions for this turf - the two NDA constituents - Mahadeo jankar and Raju Shetty are fighting for Madha seat - pressurizing BJP in the process. Now it depends upon the skill of Gopinath Munde to arrange for a settlement in western MH. 

13. In this post transformation time, OBCs and NTs will get larger stake in the pie of western MH-polity.Trick is to keep this section of society associated with Hindutva. A section is associated - yes - represented by Munde. But a large section is untapped. many forces, including Ovaisi's MIM are trying hard to win this section over. 

Sunday, February 09, 2014

Thoughts on Purush-Prakriti duality in Saamkhya-Yoga Darshana

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Here is a discussion I had with a friend regarding Saamkhya and Vedanta darshanas. Hope the readers will enjoy this.

Original Vedantik argument - So by association with and observation of a liberated purusha (Ishwara) one is drawn towards that felicity in one's own entanglement with Prakrti. The other method is to keep working to resolve the problems of the self and life. Whatever the method, one must be able to first appreciate the concept that there is such a being as a fully liberated purusha (Ishwara) in order to take up Sankhya or yoga, even if Ishwara-praNidhAna is not the chosen method. Whatever the chosen method, the admiration of Ishwara or the earnest contemplation of that concept is there. That was what I was trying to say.

One suggestion. For time being, deracinate Ishwara (ईश्वर) and Vedanta (वेदांत) from your mind. Purva Paksha (पूर्वपक्ष).

Samkhya accepts the notion of higher selves or perfected beings but rejects the notion of Ishwara. The following arguments were given by the Samkhya philosophers against the idea of an eternal, self-caused, Ishwara:
If the existence of karma is assumed, the proposition of Ishwara as a moral governor of the universe is unnecessary. For, if Ishwara enforces the consequences of actions then he cannot do so without performing karma. If however, he is assumed to be within the law of karma, then karma itself would be the giver of consequences and there would be no need of a Ishwara.
Even if karma-Siddhanta (कर्मसिद्धांत) is denied, then Ishwara still cannot be the enforcer of consequences. Because the motives of an enforcer Ishwara would be either born out of Ahamkaara (I-ness or Aatman or ego) or Anubandha (अनुबंध) (altruistic attachment towards world created by him). Now, Ishwara's motives cannot be assumed to be altruistic because an altruistic Ishwara would not create a world so full of suffering. If his motives are assumed to be egoistic, then Ishwara must be thought to have desire, as agency or authority cannot be established in the absence of desire. However, assuming that Ishwara has desire would contradict Ishwara's eternal freedom which necessitates no compulsion in karma. Moreover, desire, according to Samkhya, is an attribute of prakriti and cannot be thought to grow in Ishwara. The testimony of the Vedas, according to Samkhya, also confirms this notion.
Despite arguments to the contrary, if Ishwara is still assumed to contain unfulfilled desires, this would cause him to suffer pain and other similar human experiences. Such a worldly Ishwara would be no better or no worse than Samkhya's notion of higher self (Purusha).
Furthermore, there is no proof of the existence of Ishwara. He is not the object of perception, there exists no general proposition that can prove him by inference and the testimony of the Vedas speak of prakriti as the origin of the world, not Ishwara.
Therefore, Samkhya maintains that the various cosmological, ontological and teleological arguments could not prove God.

The basic premise of Saamkhya-Yoga (सांख्ययोग) is that Purusha gets associated with Prakriti and world comes into existence. 

Lets see the terms involved..

Purusha (पुरुष) - Puram Ushati sa Purushah (पुरं उषति स पुरुषः) - One who lives/burns from within/spends time in/afflicts citadel (पूर) is Purusha. Pure energy OR consciousness. The terms like energy etc are also quite modern. The right word would be "tatva" (तत्व)...

Prakriti (प्रकृती) - प्र + कृत् - Something upon which intense action happens. Some energy acts upon this object. Without Prakriti, the knowledge of this energy would be unknown. 

Without Prakriti, Purush is intangible, it is intangible kaivalya (onlyness OR nothingness) (कैवल्य). 

Now let us check the terms which are repeatedly used in opening argument- 

Felicity, Admiration, appreciation, earnest contemplation, and most important of all, "being".

All these terms fundamentally imply existence of "Ahamkara"(अहंकार). Note that here the word Ahamkara does not have any negative connotations like pride OR vanity. Aham is "I", kaara is "ness". Ahamkara == Aatman == "I"ness. Sense that "I" exist. Without Ahamkara or ego, all these words and feelings denoted by these words are meaningless. To experience a thing, there has to be an "experiencer". Since there is no association with prakriti, Purusha alone (or Mukta-Purusha) is void, onlyness with no sanskaras (संस्कार) of prakriti. 

Now lets move to those Purush/prakriti couples who wish moksha (मोक्ष). There are various layers in which Prakriti attaches herself to Purusha. Yoga asks to step-wise severe those ties. To visualize a metaphor of Purush/Prakriti coupling, imagine a system of phospholipid bilayer in cell-membrane.

A lipids due to their inherent prakriti form various structures in presence of water. One of the structures is called "bilayer" which is fundamental reason behind phenomenon of "life". Two layers of lipids as shown in this figure, trap a small part of water inside their structure and after being trapped, this water trapped within suddenly comes to be known as "cell" which has its own "ego" or "ahamkara". Cell dies when membrane is broken and water within mixes with water outside. Ahamkara OR aatman vanishes.

Here, water is Purusha, the tendency of lipids to form such structure which sometimes results in generation of consciousness, is prakriti. It is because of water that lipids form such structures, so lipids are "being intensely acted upon" by water. Once a separate consciousness comes into existence then there is whole range of attachments, etc which arise - this is evident from diversity of life seen on planet. 

Furthermore, not all lipids form bilayer in presence of water. Most of lipids form a structure known as "micelle" which is also prakriti (effect of water acting intensely on lipids) but does not give rise to separate ego (cell). An entity with ego can act and be acted upon. An entity without ego cannot act. Thus, Samkhya-Yoga differentiates between karma and kriya (कर्म और क्रिया - deed and action). Anyways, we partially digress.

In similar manner, prakriti traps Purusha within her. Rather, Kaivalya trapped within bonds of prakriti is called by Saamkhyins and Yogins as Purusha. Kaivalya itself cannot yearn OR admire OR felicitate OR contemplate. It is Prakriti which performs all these actions. The premise of Saamkhya-Yoga is using Prakriti to get rid of Prakriti, against the will or drive of prakriti. Hence Patanjali calls Yoga as "Prati-Prasava (प्रतिप्रसव)" - Sequentially going reverse towards birth/origin. 

While this may sound similar to metaphor of Aatman -Brahman (आत्मा-ब्रह्म) from Vedanta, the key difference is that Kaivalya is not Sat-Chit-Aananda (सत् चित् आनंद - सच्चिदानंद). Prakriti is as "satyam" as Purusha is. And Chidananda (consciousness and bliss) is result of Prakriti's coupling with Purusha. 

In this process, while Prakriti herself breaks all the bonds with Purusha, the last bond called Beeja (seed) or Ahamkara or Aatman is not within prakriti's hands to sever. One can cut all body parts of self with sword in one hand. But after all body parts are cut, the hand wielding sword cannot cut itself. This is the moment where the fundamental connection is revealed as both beginning and end. The seed of entire existence is revealed. Hence all the steps or states of this sequential severing (known as Samadhi) prior to last step are called Sabeeja Samadhi (सबीज समाधी samadhi with seed intact). When this last tie is also severed, purush becomes kaivalya. But severing of last tie is not in the hands of Prakriti. This is one of the logical fallacies of Saamkhya Yoga. Maharshi Kapil and Maharshi Patanjali have acknowledged this fallacy and explained that as long as "sanchita karma" remains, the last tie cannot be severed. One has to finish up all the sanchita-karma before beeja vanishes. Once sanchita-karma is exhuasted, the beeja of Ahamkara simply drops off as effortlessly as a ripe fruit drops off from branch of a tree. This is Nirbeej Samadhi (निर्बीज समाधी - state of kaivalya without seed of prakriti).

Applying this to devatas which we worship, what else is Vishnu OR Shiva or Indra, but Purushas bound by Prakriti on much higher plane of existence than us? A plane where we would be if we do the necessary Sadhana. Vishnu, Shiva et al are not "Ishvara", they are Purush-Prakriti couples like we are. We can be Vishnu/Shiva or whatever, if we elevate ourselves to their plane.

I have covered aspect of Parabrahma in previous paragraph. Regarding an entity being "Mukunda" (मुकुंद), nobody can grant Moksha. Moksha has to be achieved. Once Sanchita karma (संचित कर्म) is exhausted, it is our natural state to be free. There is nothing in it to be granted, that is what Purusha is. Water within cell is no different from water outside. Once cell is broken, water mixes spontaneously. Another entity cannot break this bond for someone. One has to do it himself. And once one does it, one is naturally free, there is no need of a separate "Mukunda". One is one's own "Mukunda". 

The problem with Seshvaravaada (Indic Theism) is that it assumes too many big things to make life easier. Less said about Abrahmic theism, the better.

Thursday, January 09, 2014

A story from Modern Panchatantra...

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Loose translation of original story by Chirag Patki that I read here - हितोपदेशाचे न्यूजफीड भाग १

Long ago in a Ganarajya called Magadha, there was a king called Hatobuddha (हतोबुद्ध). Like name, he was indeed a hatabuddha (हतबुद्ध) person. But he was a kalaakaar par excellence and had mastered the art of fooling people. People used to wonder about a throne behind king's throne and such conspiracy theories always found space in public gossip of the country. Before becoming king, hatobuddha was actually an adviser to a king called Narakesari. But his exceptional qualities of sycophancy towards a powerful dynasty called GaanDhjhol, hatobuddha was propped up as king. anyways.

hatobuddha ruled magadha for 10 years but people were so pissed with his rule that he decided to retire and accept vaanaprastha. Time came to choose new king. The GaanDhjhol dynasty proposed the name of crown-prince matimandahool (मतिमंदहूल) for the role of new king. But seeing the old king about to retire various Sardars from various provinces of magadha desha started dreaming to becoming king. Among these aspirants, forefront were Sardar Kamalendra (कमलेन्द्र) from west, Karunaika and Bhavyalalita (करूणैनक एवं भव्यललिता) from south, Vaatsalyata (वात्सल्यता) and dhikniteesha (धिकनितीश) from east and Mriduyama (मृदुयम) and Maya (माया) from north. Seeing this immense competition, crown prince Matimandahoola of gaanDhjhol dynasty was worried about his chances and with the advice of Vishwamaatula (विश्वमातुल),  he propped up a new contender in north named Vindasammaarjani (विंदसम्मार्जनी). 

To everyone's surprise, Vindasammaarjani defeated Bhakshila (भक्षिला), a supporter of matimandahoola's candidature and gaanDhjhol dynasty  and became the mukhiya of certain province in norther country. A certain powerful western lord Lambodara Vakramukha (लंबोदर वक्रमुख) declared that he won't be contesting for kingship, this strengthened the position of Kamalendra. However the surprise victory of Vindasammaarjani slightly altered the public perceptions especially in capital province of north magadha. Thus in that capital  province, Kamalendra, Matimandahoola and Vindasammaarjani became the likely contenders for the kingship. 

Kamalendra was working hard and he helped his supporting lords to win the position of provincial governors. But bored by lackluster matimandahoola, many soldiers of all sorts belonging to gaanDhjhol dynasty started flocking to the camp of Vindasammaarjani. Due to this flocking, and vagaries of their Kumaara-leela the socio-political environment was becoming Pradooshita instead of Prashaanta. Due to these antics of various kumaara-leelas, Vindasammaarjani although happy initially started getting annoyed. 

Kamalendra, OTOH, was quite popular person. King's men in government and king sponsored team of udghoshakas (उद्घोषक) had been trying to vitiate the public opinion against kamalendra but public did not budge and started supported him even more. Furthermore a certain Manmohana of Daksha-sampradaaya (दक्ष-संप्रदाय) decided to support Kamalendra, this further multiplied his strength. 

Now, while Kamalendra himself was desisting from any move against Vindasammaarjani, kamalendra's soldiers were beginning to attack Vindrasammaarjani on accounts that Vindasammaarjani was openly taking help from gaanDhjhola's soldiers and resources of Vishvamaatula. Vindasammaarjani's erstwhile guru Shri. Sahastra Bhojana too was alleging something similar. There were strong reasons for the same. The deputies of Vindasammaarjani were blatantly worshipping a certain Daanaveera karna of Angadesha by distributing public wealth for free to people. 

Just like that ancient king of eastern India, they too were supporting the very Bhakshila whom they had defeated on grounds of corruption and promised to throw her in jail. The deputies of Vindasammaarjani and he himself were beginning to practice double-speak with such precision that the people that northern capital province of Magadha started wondering about their decision. The fun began when Vindasammaarjani bought a huge palace at public expense and asked the panchayat to suggest which color should he paint his house in 140 alphabets. Whenever any question to him was asked apart from color of house, Vindasammaarjani asked people to go and ask Matimandahoola and kamalendra first. Just like Karna, this Vindasammaarjani supported evil, while speaking of virtue. Just like Karna, he distributed wealth of state thinking that it belongs to his father's fiefdom. He did so just to ensure that people will not question his alliance with gaanDhjhola dynasty and his protection of Bhakshila just like Karna did it to ensure public support against his friendship with Duryodhana.

A dog couple Shvetaprichhaa (श्वेतपृच्छा) and Raatrirudaka (रात्रिरुदक) living on the streets of capital province was witnessing all this. While having dinner, one day Shvetaprichhaa asked her husband Raatrirudaka a question," Bho raatrirudaka swami, Whats wrong with these humans? What is your opinion of those who promise something before elections and give excuses later for not fulfilling those promises?" Raatrirudaka threw a glance at her and continued licking the bone. This annoyed Shvetaprichha to no extent. She said unto him," Oh you who barks in nights for no reason, why are you silent now? Why don't you bark now, you barking son of a she-dog?" Pissed by the constant nagging by his wife, Ratrirudaka started barking,"My distant cousin from a big city of western magadha once told me a story which is popular in that part. The story is called insiders and outsiders. humans travel by local trains in that big huge city of western Magadha. Those who are in the trains do not let any humans on the platform to enter the train. But if someone manages to enter the train in spite of all opposition, he then becomes an insider and opposes the outsider person from next station to board the train uttering the famous words - jagah nahi hai bhaay, agla train pakad. Do you understand what I mean to say now"..

Shvetaprichha barked in affirmation. They continued licking the bone and later went to sleep after satisfying each other..